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MySQL 中为什么使用 timestamp 可以不用关心时区.

timestamp 的神作用

之前一直有过疑惑为什么MySQL数据库存timestamp可以无视时区问题.
在业务中也是一直使用Laravel框架,内置的Migration也是使用的timestamp类型字段, 也没太关心.


之前一直有过疑惑为什么MySQL数据库存timestamp可以无视时区问题. 在业务中也是一直使用Laravel框架,内置的Migration也是使用的timestamp类型字段, 也没太关心.


开始

  • 查看当前数据库时区
mysql> show variables like "%time_zone%";
+------------------+--------+
| Variable_name    | Value  |
+------------------+--------+
| system_time_zone | CST    |
| time_zone        | +08:00 |
+------------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.30 sec)
  • 查看表结构
mysql> desc timestamp_test;
+--------------+-----------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type      | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int       | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| created_time | datetime  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| created_at   | timestamp | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.26 sec)
  • 插入数据
mysql> insert into timestamp_test(created_time, created_at) values('2020-12-09 08:00:00', '2020-12-09 08:00:00');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.22 sec)


mysql> select * from timestamp_test;
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
| id | created_time        | created_at          |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
|  1 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.06 sec)
  • 这个时间看起来是没问题的, 那么我们尝试修改时区再插入数据
mysql> SET time_zone = "+00:00";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

mysql> insert into timestamp_test(created_time, created_at) values('2020-12-09 08:00:00', '2020-12-09 08:00:00');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.03 sec)

mysql> SET time_zone = "+08:00";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
  • 这时候再查看数据, 两条插入的SQL是一样的,但是发现查询的结果是不一样的
  • 这两条数据created_at的相差正好是时区的时间差
mysql> select * from timestamp_test;
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
| id | created_time        | created_at          |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
|  1 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 |
|  2 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 16:00:00 |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+
2 rows in set (0.06 sec)
  • 再看一下实际存储的时间戳, 然后我们变化时区, 发现字段时间变化了,但是原始的时间戳数据没变
mysql>  select *, unix_timestamp(created_at) from timestamp_test;
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
| id | created_time        | created_at          | unix_timestamp(created_at) |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
|  1 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 |                 1607472000 |
|  2 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 16:00:00 |                 1607500800 |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.06 sec)

mysql> SET time_zone = "+00:00";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)

mysql> show variables like "%time_zone%";
+------------------+--------+
| Variable_name    | Value  |
+------------------+--------+
| system_time_zone | CST    |
| time_zone        | +00:00 |
+------------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.08 sec)

mysql> select *, unix_timestamp(created_at) from timestamp_test;
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
| id | created_time        | created_at          | unix_timestamp(created_at) |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
|  1 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 00:00:00 |                 1607472000 |
|  2 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 | 2020-12-09 08:00:00 |                 1607500800 |
+----+---------------------+---------------------+----------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.18 sec)
  • 因为这一切是MySQL隐式的帮我们转换了, 让我们不用关心时区的问题

就是数据库实际上会保存 UTC 时间戳,写入的时候先按 Session 时区转成 UTC 时间,读出的时候再按 Session 时区转成当前时区的时间,这些转换都是透明的

  • 假如我们在正八区存储了2020-12-09 08:00:00时间的一条数据
  • 我们在正八区取出这一条数据, 时间依然是2020-12-09 08:00:00
  • 这时候我们有一台在零时区的服务器,连接MySQL,并且把当前连接的时区设置为+00:00,再去查数据库这条记录,查到的数据是:2020-12-09 00:00:00, 正好对应零时区的时间,这样子我们就不用考虑时区的问题.+
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